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Pashtuns are also found in smaller numbers in the eastern and northern parts of Iran. Records as early as the mid-1600s report Durrani Pashtuns living in the Khorasan Province of Safavid Iran. After the short reign of the Ghilji Pashtuns in Iran, Nader Shah defeated the last independent Ghilji ruler of Kandahar, Hussain Hotak. In order to secure Durrani control in southern Afghanistan, Nader Shah deported Hussain Hotak and large numbers of the Ghilji Pashtuns to the Mazandaran Province in northern Iran. The remnants of this once sizable exiled community, although assimilated, continue to claim Pashtun descent. During the early 18th century, in the course of a very few years, the number of Durrani Pashtuns in Iranian Khorasan, greatly increased. Later the region became part of the Durrani Empire itself. The second Durrani king of Afghanistan, Timur Shah Durrani was born in Mashhad. Contemporary to Durrani rule in the east, Azad Khan Afghan, an ethnic Ghilji Pashtun, formerly second in charge of Azerbaijan during Afsharid rule, gained power in the western regions of Iran and Azerbaijan for a short period. According to a sample survey in 1988, 75 percent of all Afghan refugees in the southern part of the Iranian Khorasan Province were Durrani Pashtuns.
According to a study from 2012 called \"Afghanistan from a Y-chromosome perspective\", the study from a sample size of 190 showed R1a1a-M198 to be the most dominant haplogroup in Pashtuns at 67.4%. In the north, it peaks at 50% while in the south, it peaks at 65.8%. R1a-Z2125 occurs at a frequency of 40% in Pashtuns from Northern Afghanistan. This subclade is also predominantly present among Tajik, Turkmen, Uzbek, and Bashkir ethnic groups, as well as in some populations in the Caucasus and Iran.
The song could have been named Halal rang because she also wears green bikini. But if you look carefully, when she is wearing green bikini pathaan only exchanges salaam from a distance. Meaning he would treat muslim women respectfully.
Thank you very much! I really appreciate this. What I find interesting is that the \"South Indian\" component does not differentiate us HAP Pashtuns from the HGDP samples. Even HRP0286 is within the range of variation for the HGDP Pathans. The real difference/discontinuity lies in the \"Baloch\" component (obviously, HGD00220 does not count in this regard). A Pakistani Pashtun friend shared their results for DIY HarappaWorld with me, and their \"South Indian\" was within range (17%), but their \"Baloch\" was only 33%. I wonder if this finding would survive further sampling or participation. If so, the high \"Baloch\" component might perhaps be a local Bangash-Turi phenomenon (largest tribes in the Kurram Agency, although there is a good chance the tribal composition of the HGDP samples is predominately Bangash).
This is awesome Zak, thanks a lot. It would be more interesting to take the Pashtun samples and match them Punjabi, Balochi, Sindhi etc. I've seen the combined admixture, however I am wondering how contrasting each population sample using a scatter graph tool or something to show distances. I may be dreaming here :). However, great job.
Very interesting. I would not have expected Tajiks from Tajikistan to be so genetically close to the HGDP Pashtuns (very low Fst distances). So, this means there is a good chance Afghan Tajiks are the closest population to Pashtuns. But perhaps I shouldn't be too hasty. From a cultural perspective, the Tajik category has no internal coherence. Pashtuns are heterogeneous, but Afghan Tajiks are something else. If asked about their ethnic background, they will respond by giving their native city or region. They are very different in this respect from Pashtuns, who tend to have a strong sense of ethnic identity (education also plays a role here). Perhaps they will exhibit differential affinities to Pashtuns, depending on their region, and depending on the Pashtuns being compared. It is a real shame to not have academic autosomal samples from Afghanistan.
I can only speculate for the genetics of Afghanistani Tajiks due to the absence of samples. I guess they possess Mongoloid components in lesser ratios and the South Asian components in higher ratios than those of Tajikistani Tajiks and thus occupy a position between those of Tajikistani Tajiks and Afghanistani Pashtuns. But this is just my educated guess.
Well, the HAP Punjabi participants are very diverse. There are Muslims, Sikh and Hindu samples.There are 25 Arain Punjabi samples, 8 Punjabi Jatts, 2 Punjabi Brahmins, 2 Punjabi Ramgarhias (traditionally considered lower caste among Sikhs) and 10 generic Punjabis from various caste/tribal backgrounds. The Punjabi Jatts and their neighboring Haryana Jatts together would seem to be marginally closer to the Pashtuns than the Sindhis despite being Sikh and Hindu respectively. However, as a whole, the more presumably homogenous group of Sindhis are closer as a group are closer. Whether this is due to consistent Baloch admixture or not is yet to be seen.
Another \"trend\" I've noticed from the samples we the project has is that the Pashtuns who have less of the South Indian component seem to have significantly more of the Caucasian component and slightly more of the East Eurasian (mostly Siberian and NE Asian) components that offset the lesser South Indian component. In the case of HGDP, it is essentially entirely East Eurasian ancestry that lowers his South Indian and Baloch components.
I know you'e hypothesizing that the Pashtuns with the highest South Indian scores of 35% and 36% are of Turi origin who are said to have originated from Punjab, Sindh or to be of Hindkowan origin. Well, it seems slightly strange that the Turi would have been Pashtunized over time and yet have some individuals with higher South Indian components than all of the Punjabi groups on HAP. The closest being the 4 Brahmin and Ramgarhia samples who have 34% of the South Indian component.
As can be observed above, an average can conceal substantial variation. Some Punjabi Brahmin and Ramgarhia participants have 35% \"South Indian\" (one of each, I think). And 36% is not that far from 34%. HRP0064 is Punjabi (no caste designation, so he could be a Pakistani), and his \"South Indian\" component is at 43%. HRP0106 is Punjabi (same note as before), and his \"South Indian\" is 39%. But most non-Jatt Punjabis seem to be at 30-35% \"South Indian\". I think it is very interesting that in Punjab, members of the highest caste have the same amount of \"South Indian\" as members of one of the lowest castes. And a group of agricultural Shudras (Jatts are technically Shudras, and Indian and Arab sources from the early Medieval period describe them as low-status. The \"Jatts\" of Afghanistan are still tinkerers and musicians, and are on the fringe of society, but I don't quite understand their relation to the actual Jatts of greater Punjab, who very far from being on the fringes of society) are the least South Asian shifted, and have substantial \"Northeast European\" percentages. The whole worn-out truism that higher caste equals greater West Eurasian affinity does not seem to apply here. I wonder if this could be a function of the caste system's antiquity in the Punjab region. Also, I don't necessarily think these Punjabi-like Pashtun individuals are Turi (as mentioned previously, four HGDP Pashtun samples clustered with Punjabis and other northwestern South Asians in the last ChromoPainter/FineStructure analysis. This seems consistent across such analyses, including MCLUST). I did note that the HGDP samples are from the Bangash portion of the Kurram Agency, and that perhaps these individuals are a part of normal Pashtun genetic variation. Pashtuns and Punjabis are neighbors, and I am sure there has been bidirectional gene-flow. Also, Hindkowans are often regarded as Pashtun by the Pashtuns who live alongside them. It is simply a matter of speaking Pashto, and the rites and rituals of marriage. But I don't think that is the case here, as Hindkowans are not a substantial minority in the Kurram Agency (or anywhere in FATA). That dynamic applies more to Peshawar, Charsadda, Mardan, and the northeastern portions of KP/NWFP (places like Abbotabad, Swabi, Buner, Haripur, and even Swat). I simply mentioned the Turi because this tribe has ultimate origins east of the Indus river (or perhaps are descended from local Lahnda speakers (Hindkowans), whose basic affiliations lie in the greater Punjab region). Also, they happen to be in the neighborhood. They are very important people in the Kurram, where these HGDP samples were collected. Be that as it may, I think you make some very good points.
Yes, I fully understood that but I was focusing on the averages because the averages give a better idea of the group. I suppose they are rather meaningless when you have 2-3 individual samples though. In any case, there are individual Punjabi Arains with ASI levels of around 20-22% which would roughly correlate to somewhere around 18-20%
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